Pernicious anaemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis inducing vitamin B12 deficiency by malabsorption. This disease may be diagnosed in the absence of any anaemia, on a neuropathy or when one or several autoimmune disorders co-exist. Typically, pernicious anaemia is revealed by macrocytic megaloblastic anaemia. Diagnosis is done on low serum vitamin B12, raised serum homocysteine, parietal cell and, intrinsic factor antibodies. Pernicious anaemia should be treated indefinitely by monthly intramuscular hydroxocobalamin. Because of an increased incidence of gastric carcinoma, endoscopy should be evenly performed.