This report describes the development and validation/calibration of a structured food frequency questionnaire for use in a large-scale cohort study of diet and health in Chinese men and women aged 45-74 years in Singapore, the development of a food composition database for analysis of the dietary data, and the results of the dietary validation/calibration study. The present calibration study comparing estimated intakes from 24-hour recalls with those from the food frequency questionnaires revealed correlations of 0.24-0.79 for energy and nutrients among the Singapore Chinese, which are comparable to the correlation coefficients reported in calibration studies of other populations. We also report on the nutritional profiles of Singapore Chinese on the basis of results of 1,880 24-hour dietary recalls conducted on 1,022 (425 men and 597 women) cohort subjects. Comparisons with age-adjusted corresponding values for US whites and blacks show distinct differences in dietary intakes between the Singapore and US populations. The Singapore cohort will be followed prospectively to identify dietary associations with cancer risk and other health outcomes.