Normative data for the HADS from a large non-clinical sample

Br J Clin Psychol. 2001 Nov;40(4):429-34. doi: 10.1348/014466501163904.


Objectives: To provide normative data for the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS).

Design: Repeated measures and correlational.

Methods: The HADS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1792) in terms of the distributions of age, gender and occupational status. Correlational analysis was used to determine the influence of demographic variables on HADS scores.

Results: Demographic variables had only very modest influences on HADS scores. The reliability of the HADS is acceptable; the Anxiety and Depression scales are moderately correlated (.53). Tables to convert raw scores to percentiles are presented for females and males.

Conclusions: The present normative data allow clinicians to assess the rarity of a given HADS score, and thus provide a useful supplement to existing cut-off scores.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anxiety / diagnosis
  • Anxiety / psychology*
  • Depression / diagnosis
  • Depression / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / standards
  • Reference Values
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • United Kingdom