Novel Legionella-like isolates, strains Montbéliard A1T and Gréoux 11 D13T, isolated from two different French water sources, were studied taxonomically and phylogenetically. Morphological and biochemical characterization revealed that they were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming bacilli with a cut-glass appearance that grew only on L-cysteine-supplemented buffered charcoal yeast extract agar. Phenotypic characterization using fatty acid and ubiquinone profiles and SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed that they were closely related, but distinct from, other species of the genus Legionella, since serotyping could not relate them to any existing serogroup. Genotypic profiles generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and 16S-23S rDNA spacer region PCR analyses were unique for each of these isolates. DNA-DNA relatedness values of strains Montbéliard A1T and Gréoux 11 D13T to each other and to other Legionella type strains were less than 25%. Phylogenetic affiliation of these organisms obtained by 16S rDNA sequence comparisons confirmed that they were distinct from any other known Legionella species. All the above results confirm that these strains constitute two novel species for which the names Legionella gresilensis sp. nov. (type strain Gréoux 11 D13T = ATCC 700509T = CIP 106631T) and Legionella beliardensis sp. nov. (type strain Montbéliard A1T = ATCC 700512T = CIP 106632T) are proposed.