The primary purpose of this article is to provide a framework for organizing research on physical exercise and cancer control. A secondary purpose is to use this framework to provide an overview of the extant literature and to offer directions forr future research. The proposed framework, entitled Physical Exercise Across the Cancer Experience (PEACE), divides the cancer experience into 6 time periods: 2 prediagnosis (i.e., prescreening and screening/diagnosis) and 4 postdiagnosis (i.e., pretreatment, treatment, posttreatment, and resumption). Based on these time periods, 8 general cancer control outcomes are highlighted. Two cancer control outcomes occur prediagnosis (i.e., prevention and detection), and 6 occur postdiagnosis (i.e., buffering, coping, rehabilitation, health promotion, palliation, and survival). An overview of the physical exercise literature indicates that only I time period (i.e., prescreening) and cancer control outcome (i.e., prevention) has received significant research attention. Some time periods (i.e., treatment and resumption) and cancer control outcomes (i.e., coping and health promotion) have received modest research attention, whereas other time periods (i.e., screening/diagnosis, pretreatment, and posttreatment) and cancer control outcomes (i.e., detection, buffering, rehabilitation, palliation, and survival) have received only minimal attention. It is hoped that Framework PEACE will stimulate a more comprehensive and in-depth inquiry into the role of physical exercise in cancer control.