Differences in definitions and methodologies for assessing bullying in primary school children between countries have precluded direct comparisons of prevalence rates and school factors related to bullying. A total of 2377 children in England (6-year-olds/Year 2: 1072; 8-year-olds/Year 4: 1305) and 1538 in Germany (8-year-olds/Year 2) were questioned individually using an identical standard interview. In both countries the types of bullying to victimize others were similar: boys were most often perpetrators, most bullies were also victims (bully/victims), most bullying occurred in playgrounds and the classroom, and SES and ethnicity only showed weak associations with bullying behaviour. Major differences were found in victimization rates with 24% of English pupils becoming victims every week compared with only 8% in Germany. In contrast, fewer boys in England engaged every week in bullying (2.5-4.5%) than German boys (7.5%), while no differences were found between girls. In England, children in smaller classes were more often victimized. Further study of the group of bully/victims, schooling differences in England vs. Germany and implications for prevention of bullying are discussed.