The MeOH extract of the seeds of Rhynchosia volubilis (Leguminosae) showed antiproliferative activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma [MK-1, 50% growth inhibition (GI50): 25 microg/ml], human uterus carcinoma (HeLa, GI50: 30 microg/ml), and murine melanoma (B16F10, GI50: 8 microg/ml) cells. Bioactivity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of gallic acid methylester (1), gallic acid (2), 7-O-galloylcatechin (3), 1,6-di-O-galloylglucose (4), 1-O-galloylglucose (5), and trigalloylgallic acid (6), and their antiproliferative activity was estimated. All showed much stronger inhibition against B16F10 cell growth than against HeLa and MK-1 cell growth. Compound 2 and its tetramer (6) with a free carboxyl group showed higher activity than those which did not have a free carboxyl group. In relation to the gallic acid tetramer (6), two gallic acid dimers (ellagic acid and dehydrodigallic acid) and trimers (tergallic acid dilactone and flavogallonic acid dilactone) were tested for their activity, and compared with those of the isolates.