We determined the effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) intake on remnant-like particles (RLP), lipolytic enzymes, lipid transfer protein, transaminases, sex hormones, iron, calcium, and vitamin E in healthy men. In the first randomized, crossover experiment, 14 men were given either 20 g per day of SPI or nothing (control) for each 4-week segment. After 3 weeks of SPI intake, TG and RLP cholesterol levels were significantly lower than the baseline by 13.4% (p<0.05) and 9.8% (p<0.05), respectively. However, no significant change was found in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels or the activities of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase. Although the levels of transaminases. testosterone, iron, and calcium did not change, the vitamin E level was reduced from the baseline by 9.7%, a significant decrease (p<0.01). In the second study, we attempted to determine the effect of vitamin E supplement taken with SPI. For each 3-week segment, 12 men were given 20 g per day of SPI, either with or without 200 mg per day of vitamin E, in a randomized crossover design. The vitamin E level was reduced by 9.2%, a significant decrease (p<0.05), after SPI intake for 3 weeks, and vitamin E supplement increased vitamin E level significantly (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that SPI intake reduces remnant lipoproteins, TG, and the plasma level of vitamin E, although vitamin E supplementation compensates for the reduction of vitamin E. Therefore the supplementation of vitamin E may be required in subjects with long-term and abundant intake of soy protein.