Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. A series of three case reports illustrating the link with high oestrogen states

Scott Med J. 2001 Oct;46(5):150-2. doi: 10.1177/003693300104600509.


Lymphangioleiornyomatosis is a rare lung disorder characterised by cystic air spaces and smooth muscle proliferation. The condition, which most commonly presents with dyspnoea, pneumothoraces or cough, is only described in females and is most commonly diagnosed during childbearing years. Three cases are presented which illustrate typical features of the disease and the association with high oestrogen levels. The first had recurrent pneumothoraces during her first pregnancy. The second lady was post menopausal at diagnosis but her symptoms predated her menopause. The third, presented with dyspnoea, abnormal chest sensations and a pneumothorax. She had a history of hyperprolactinaemia with secondary amenorhoea due to low oestrogen levels which had been corrected prior to her presentation. All three patients had reduced gas transfer and abnormalities in spirometry, two had reticular shadowing on their chest radiograph and all had typical appearances on lung computerised tomography. Although disease progression was variable, all patients showed a gradual decline in lung function.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / diagnosis*
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / etiology
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / physiopathology*
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / therapy
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumothorax / etiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / physiopathology
  • Respiratory Function Tests