Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary fiber consumption and lifestyle on serum lipids in adult men with non-restricted diet and physical activity.
Methods: Two groups of 19 men were classified as high (48 g/day) and low fiber groups (27 g/day). Anthropometry, food frequency, daily weighed intakes and physical activity were done for a seven-day period. Fasting blood was collected and serum was analyzed for triglycerides, total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions.
Results: Crude correlation coefficients showed that total cholesterol was negatively associated with physical activity, total dietary fiber and P/S ratio (r = 0.52; p < 0.001. r = -0.44; p < 0.01, r = 0.51, p < 0.001). LDL-C was also correlated negatively with total dietary fiber and P/S ratio (r = -0.34, p < 0.03; r = -0.53, p < 0.01). It was also positively associated with dietary cholesterol and body weight (r = 0.34, p < 0.03; r = 0.31, p < 0.05). Serum triglycerides had an inverse association with total dietary fiber and physical activity (r = -0.30: p < 0.05; r = -0.45, p < 0.004). After controlling for energy intake, total fat, saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, physical activity and body mass index, LDL-C/HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C, remained significantly associated with dietary fiber (r = 0.34; p < 0.05 and r = -0.38; p < 0.02, respectively).
Conclusions: This study provides evidence in free living men that there is an association between dietary fiber intake and favorable lipid status and that lifestyle defined by socioeconomic status, physical activity and the quality of the dietary fat intake can play an important role. Public health nutrition advice and policy should continue to emphasize the importance of these factors.