Long-term ophthalmic outcome of low birth weight children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

Pediatrics. 2002 Jan;109(1):12-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.109.1.12.


Objective: A prospective study of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) of 505 infants who weighed <1701 g at birth was undertaken in the mid-1980s. This cohort was traced at 10 to 12 years of age to determine how low birth weight alone and ROP might influence their ophthalmic outcome.

Methods: Outcome measures were 1) visual functions (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity, perimetry, and color vision), 2) presence of strabismus, and 3), measurements of eye size and the dimensions of its components including refractive state. A total of 169 11-year-olds who were born at term were recruited as control subjects and examined under the same conditions.

Results: A total of 448 of the original cohort were traced, and 254 consented to a further examination. Compared with the control group, the follow-up cohort differed significantly with reduced visual functions and increased incidence of both myopia and strabismus. Compared with published data, eye size was smaller in the low birth weight cohort. To summarize the ophthalmic data, we defined ophthalmic morbidity as visual acuity below 0.0 log units or the presence of strabismus, myopia, color vision defect, or visual field defect. The rate of ophthalmic morbidity was 50.8% (n = 129/254) in the study cohort compared with 19.5% (n = 33/169) in the control group. The highest rate of ophthalmic morbidity was associated with severe ROP (stages 3/4), although those with no ROP had a less favorable outcome than the control group.

Conclusion: This study shows that low birth weight children are at increased risk of visual impairments compared with children who are born at full term. Visual impairments are associated with low birth weight per se and severe ROP. Regressed mild ROP is only a risk factor for strabismus. The functional significance of these deficits is largely unknown.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Comorbidity
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant, Low Birth Weight*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Payment Assessment Commission
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity / epidemiology*
  • United Kingdom / epidemiology
  • Vision Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Visual Acuity