Running economy is negatively related to sit-and-reach test performance in international-standard distance runners

Int J Sports Med. 2002 Jan;23(1):40-3. doi: 10.1055/s-2002-19271.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running economy (RE) and lower body flexibility. Thirty-four international-standard male distance runners (mean +/- s, age 27 +/- 5 years; body mass 64.9 +/- 4.2 kg; VO(2)max 72.8 +/- 3.7 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) gave written consent to participate in this study. The subjects performed an incremental treadmill test for the assessment of RE, lactate threshold and VO(2)max, and the sit-and-reach test was used to assess their general lower body and trunk flexibility. Running speeds below the lactate threshold were used to explore the relationship between running economy and sit-and-reach test performance. At 16.0 km x h(-1), the VO(2) was 50.6 +/- 3.7 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (range: 44.2 to 57.1 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Pearson product moment correlation coefficients revealed no significant relationships between aerobic demand at 16.0 km x h(-1) and age (r = - 0.19), height (r = 0.15), body mass (r = - 0.18), or VO(2)max (r = - 0.004). However, there was a highly significant relationship between aerobic demand at 16.0 km x h(-1) and the sit-and-reach test score (r = 0.68; p < 0.0001). These results suggest that the least flexible runners are also the most economical. It is possible that stiffer musculotendinous structures reduce the aerobic demand of submaximal running by facilitating a greater elastic energy return during the shortening phase of the stretch-shortening cycle.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Exercise Test
  • Humans
  • Lactates / blood
  • Leg / physiology*
  • Male
  • Oxygen Consumption / physiology
  • Physical Exertion / physiology*
  • Pliability
  • Pulmonary Gas Exchange / physiology
  • Running / physiology*
  • Task Performance and Analysis*


  • Lactates