Cool dialysate and midodrine have been used successfully to treat intradialytic hypotension (IDH) in the end-stage renal disease population. However, the exact mechanisms by which these interventions improve hemodynamic stability are not well known. We undertook a study to evaluate the effect of these modalities on intradialytic hemodynamics in patients with documented dialysis-associated hypotension. We used the ultrasound dilution technique to measure cardiac output (CO), central blood volume (CBV), and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) in these patients. The study was performed in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of control (1A) and cool dialysate (1B) studies, whereas phase 2 consisted of control (2A) and midodrine (2B) studies. CO, CBV, and PVR were measured 30 minutes after the initiation of hemodialysis (HD) and 30 minutes before the termination of HD using the HD01 monitor. Blood pressure was measured pre-HD and post-HD. Fourteen patients with documented IDH completed the study. CO and CBV were significantly more preserved in the cool dialysate and midodrine phases compared with control phases. PVR increased in all phases of the study. Declines in mean arterial pressures from pre-HD to post-HD were less with cool dialysate versus control and midodrine versus control. Ultrafiltration volumes were not significantly different between phases. Cool dialysate and midodrine appear to improve intradialytic hemodynamics in patients with dialysis-associated hypotension, mainly through the preservation of CBV and CO, rather than significantly elevating PVR.
Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.