Background: Our objective was to determine whether a tailored, stage-matched educational intervention, guided by the transtheoretical model (TTM), would increase rates of repeat-screening mammography. DESIGN SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1324 women (N=1026 after attrition) aged 50 to 74 years were recruited from a staff-model health maintenance organization. Some of the women were not due for mammograms at the time of recruitment.
Intervention: Women were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: Group 1, no educational materials (usual care); Group 2, standard materials; and Group 3, stage-matched/tailored materials. Women in Groups 2 and 3 received a mailed education packet after both a baseline and a follow-up telephone interview. All women in Group 2 received the same materials regardless of differences in baseline mammography-related attitudes and behaviors. Each woman in Group 3 received materials based on her stage of adoption for mammography and TTM constructs.
Main outcome: Using clinical records, repeat screening was defined as receipt of a second mammogram within 14 months after obtaining an initial postbaseline mammogram.
Results: Women in Group 3 were more likely to obtain repeat-screening mammograms than women in Group 1 (44.2% vs 35.8%; adjusted rate ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11-1.46; adjusted rate difference = 0.06, 95% CI=-0.01-0.13). The screening percentage in Group 2 was intermediate (39.3%), and did not differ from either Group 3 or Group 1.
Conclusions: The effect of the stage-matched/tailored intervention was sustained for repeat screening, although no educational materials were delivered to coincide with the timing for a second mammogram. However, the stage-matched/tailored intervention was not sufficient to have a substantial impact on screening beyond the effect of standard educational materials. Future interventions may need to administer "booster" sessions to increase repeat screenings.