The stresses of deployment affect both sexes, but some are either mildly or markedly different for women. These include certain female health and gynecological issues, nursing, and pregnancy. Separation from small children, isolation, the possibility of sexual assault, and risks of combat or being taken hostage are concerns for both genders. All of these issues should be addressed before and during deployment to ensure optimal individual and unit functioning and improve retention. Gynecological infections, redeployment for abnormal Papanicolaou smears, and pregnancy while on deployment can be avoided with proper hygiene and planning. There are resources available in pamphlet form, electronically, and on CD-ROM to help prepare service members, leaders, and health care personnel. Improvements in the ability to maintain personal hygiene and to communicate home should benefit both sexes.