The cannabinoid CB1 receptor has been shown to be the primary site of action for cannabinoid-induced effects on the central nervous system. Activation of this receptor has proven to dampen neurotransmission and produce an overall reduction in neuronal excitability. Cannabinoid compounds like delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol have been shown to be anticonvulsant in maximal electroshock, a model of partial seizure with secondary generalization. However, until now, it was unknown if these anticonvulsant effects are mediated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Likewise, (R)-(+)-[2,3-Dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone (WIN 55,212-2), a cannabimimetic compound that has been shown to decrease hyperexcitability in cell culture models via the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, has never been evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in an animal seizure model. We first show that the cannabinoid compounds delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (ED50 = 42 mg/kg), cannabidiol (ED50 = 80 mg/kg), and WIN 55,212-2 (ED50 = 47 mg/kg) are anticonvulsant in maximal electroshock. We further establish, using the cannabinoid CB1 receptor specific antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamidehydrochloride (SR141716A) (AD50 = 2.5 mg/kg), that the anticonvulsant effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and WIN 55,212-2 are cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated while the anticonvulsant activity of cannabidiol is not. This study establishes a role for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in modulating seizure activity in a whole animal model.