The adhesive interactions involved in monocyte recruitment to the alveolar space in vivo are only poorly defined. To study these interactions, we used a recently developed mouse model that allowed the separation and quantification of freshly recruited monocytes, resident alveolar macrophages (rAM), neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar compartment by fluorescence activated cell sorting technology. In these mice, the combined intratracheal administration of the monocyte chemoattractant JE/monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and low dose Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a self-limiting pulmonary inflammatory response, characterized by well-controlled sequelae of both neutrophil and monocyte emigration into the alveolar space. In contrast, challenge with JE/MCP-1 provokes the emigration only of monocytes in the absence of lung inflammation. Using an array of function-blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAb) (anti-CD11a, -CD11b, -CD18, -CD49d, -CD54, and -CD106), we characterized the adhesive interactions underlying the transendothelial and transepithelial leukocyte traffic in intact animals. Alveolar monocyte recruitment elicited by JE/MCP-1 alone was strictly dependent on CD11b/CD18, CD54, and CD49d, and partly dependent on CD11a, but not dependent on CD106. In response to JE/MCP-1 plus E. coli LPS, we observed additional engagement of CD11a and CD106 for enhanced alveolar monocyte transmigration. Comigrating neutrophils were found to primarily utilize CD11b, CD18, and CD54, but not CD49d, CD106, or, surprisingly, CD11a. This contrasted with the effect of CD11a on alveolar challenge with macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha instead of JE/MCP-1. In conclusion, we found that in an intact mouse model allowing detailed phenotyping of leukocyte traffic into the alveolar space, the molecular pathways involved in JE/MCP-1-driven monocyte efflux differed under noninflammatory and inflammatory (presence of LPS) conditions. Moreover, the profile of adhesive interactions underlying the monocyte efflux differed from that characterizing neutrophil trafficking.