Corneal and refractive error astigmatism in Singaporean schoolchildren: a vector-based Javal's rule

Optom Vis Sci. 2001 Dec;78(12):881-7. doi: 10.1097/00006324-200112000-00010.


Background: Traditional approaches to Javal's rule do not use data from subjects with oblique astigmatism and have not been used to make predictions about subjects with oblique astigmatism. Vector approaches to analyzing refractive error can circumvent these problems.

Methods: Subjects were 993 Singaporean schoolchildren. We performed linear regression of refractive error astigmatism on corneal astigmatism, using J0 vectors to describe with-the-rule and against-the-rule astigmatism and J45 vectors to describe oblique astigmatism.

Results: We obtained the following statistically significant regression relationships: RJ0 = 0.931 x CJ0 - 0.276 and RJ45 = 0.638 x CJ45 + 0.010, where R and C denote refractive error astigmatism and corneal astigmatism, respectively.

Conclusion: Our vector-based Javal's rule gives closer predictions of refractive astigmatism than the original Javal's rule and the simplified Javal's rule and can be applied in cases of corneal oblique astigmatism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Astigmatism / diagnosis*
  • Astigmatism / ethnology
  • Child
  • Cornea / pathology*
  • Female
  • Forecasting
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Optometry / methods*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Singapore / epidemiology