We report a series of 37 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who received an allograft between 1990 and 2000 at our institution. Median age was 47 years, and nearly 70% of patients were Durie-Salmon stage III. A median of five cycles of chemotherapy were given before transplant, with a median interval between diagnosis and transplant of 9.3 months. We report a nonrelapse mortality rate of 22% with a median follow-up period of 40 months, whereas complete remission (CR) rate at 12 months is estimated at 57%. Treatment failure rate and overall survival at 40 months are estimated at 52% and 32%, respectively. The number of chemotherapy cycles prior to allotransplantation achieved borderline statistical significance as a poor prognosis factor for overall survival (P = 0.05), while the presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was significantly correlated with CR achievement (P = 0.036). Our study confirms that early allografting in MM can yield toxicity rates significantly lower than those associated with historical cohorts, and supports the hypothesis that cumulative chemotoxicity has a negative influence on mortality and survival rates. More importantly, our study clearly demonstrates an association between cGVHD and CR and brings further evidence in favor of a graft-versus-myeloma effect.