Short wavelength automated perimetry

Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2001 Dec;79(6):546-59. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0420.2001.790602.x.


Short Wavelength Automated Perimetry (SWAP) utilizes a blue stimulus to preferentially stimulate the blue cones and a high luminance yellow background to adapt the green and red cones and to saturate, simultaneously, the activity of the rods. This review describes the theoretical aspects of SWAP, highlights current limitations associated with the technique and discusses potential clinical applications. Compared to white-on-white (W-W) perimetry, SWAP is limited clinically by: greater variability associated with the estimation of threshold, ocular media absorption, increased examination duration and an additional learning effect. Comparative studies of SWAP and W-W perimetry have generally been undertaken on small cohorts of patients. The conclusions are frequently unconvincing due to limitations for SWAP in the delineation of abnormality and of progressive field loss. SWAP is almost certainly able to identify glaucomatous visual field loss in advance of that by W-W perimetry although the incidence of progressive field loss is similar between the two techniques. Increasing evidence suggests that functional abnormality with SWAP is preceded by structural abnormality of the optic nerve head and/or the retinal nerve fibre layer. SWAP appears to be beneficial in the detection of diabetic macular oedema and possibly in some neuro-ophthalmic disorders.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Glaucoma / diagnosis*
  • Humans
  • Macular Edema / diagnosis*
  • Nerve Fibers / pathology
  • Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Optic Disk / pathology
  • Retina / pathology
  • Vision Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Visual Field Tests / methods*
  • Visual Fields*