Interferon-gamma therapy: evaluation of routes of administration and delivery systems

J Pharm Sci. 2002 Jan;91(1):2-17. doi: 10.1002/jps.10007.


Although different routes and delivery systems have been used to deliver interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) for the treatment of a variety of viral and neoplastic diseases, little has been reported regarding the most efficient and least toxic routes and drug delivery modes required to achieve these goals. To have a greater understanding of the best strategies to use to administer this cytokine in an efficient, stable, and safe manner, this review details aspects of IFN-gamma concerning its mechanism of action, physical properties, and pharmacokinetics. One important conclusion that is drawn from this analysis is that a consistent, local concentration of IFN-gamma is necessary to achieve an optimal therapeutic response. A critical discussion covering the advantages and limitations of the currently used methodologies to deliver IFN-gamma in such a fashion is presented.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry
  • Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antiviral Agents / chemistry
  • Delayed-Action Preparations / administration & dosage
  • Dosage Forms
  • Drug Delivery Systems / methods*
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma / administration & dosage*
  • Interferon-gamma / chemistry
  • Interferon-gamma / physiology


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Dosage Forms
  • Interferon-gamma