Pesticide-handling practices in agriculture in Tanzania: observational data from 27 coffee and cotton farms

Int J Occup Environ Health. 2001 Oct-Dec;7(4):326-32. doi: 10.1179/107735201800339218.


The practices of pesticide handling in agriculture were surveyed in 1991-1993 in Tanzania, to identify hazardous practices and farms where they occurred. The study involved 23 coffee farms with 246 persons exposed to hazardous practices, and four cotton farms with 45 exposed. An observation form addressed locations of important places with respect to pesticide spraying, storage, disposal, and equipment; personal protection; and hygiene. More pesticide formulations were used for coffee compared with cotton and by individual rather than cooperative farms. Coffee farms more often had unlabeled pesticide containers and missing mixing instructions, while cotton pesticides were stored in bedrooms, near food, and near open fires, and pesticide leftovers were often present. Hazardous practices were more pronounced at individual than cooperative farms, with significant differences in pesticide storage areas, as well as unlabeled and non-original containers. The study demonstrated the need to train farmers in pesticide safety, strengthen advisory and regulatory services, and extend protection to farm workers' families.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture / methods
  • Agriculture / standards
  • Agriculture / statistics & numerical data
  • Animals
  • Coffee / growth & development
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Environmental Monitoring / standards
  • Environmental Monitoring / statistics & numerical data
  • Gossypium / growth & development
  • Hazardous Substances / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Occupational Exposure / prevention & control
  • Occupational Exposure / statistics & numerical data
  • Pesticide Residues / adverse effects*
  • Pesticides / adverse effects*
  • Product Packaging / methods
  • Protective Devices / adverse effects
  • Safety Management / methods
  • Tanzania


  • Coffee
  • Hazardous Substances
  • Pesticide Residues
  • Pesticides