In 1997, 273 722 hospitalizations as a result of neurological disorders, including the related operated cases, were reported in Austria's non-profit hospitals (80% of all hospitals). They represent 14.12% of all 1.9 million in-patient treatments. The individual disease groups, e.g. cerebrovascular disorders (59 269 admissions or 3.06%), multiple sclerosis (3920 admissions or 0.2%) and all other groups are detailed. We estimated the cost resulting from these diseases which amounted to 11.88% of all hospital costs. We were also able to estimate that 5549 beds are required for in-patient treatment in the area of neurology, assuming an average duration of treatment of 8 days (Austrian mean value for neurological disorders). This is equivalent to one bed per 1367 inhabitants or 11.31% of all beds for in-patient treatment in non-profit hospitals in Austria. Obviously at present the majority of neurological patients are treated in non-neurological departments. A major increase in resources to neurology is necessary if patients are to receive the benefit of specialized diagnosis and treatment. These further resources not only cover the increase of neurological beds in hospitals but also financial, personal resources and in consequence increased capacity for neurological education, training and research.