International comparison of studies using the perinatal grief scale: a decade of research on pregnancy loss

Death Stud. 2001 Apr-May;25(3):205-28. doi: 10.1080/07481180125971.


The Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) has been used in many studies of loss in pregnancy, including miscarriage, stillbirth, induced abortion, neonatal death, and relinquishment for adoption. This article describes 22 studies from 4 countries that used the PGS with a total of 2485 participants. Studies that report Cronbach's alpha for their own samples give evidence of very high internal consistency reliability. Evidence for the validity of the PGS is also reviewed, such as convergent validity seen in its association with measures of mental health, social support, and marital satisfaction. The standard errors of the means for the total scale and for the subscales reveal fairly consistent scores, in spite of very different samples and types of loss; computation of means and standard deviations for the studies as a whole permits us to establish normal score ranges. Significantly higher scores were found in studies that recruited participants from support groups and self-selected populations rather than from medical sources, and from U.S. studies compared with those in Europe.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Induced / psychology*
  • Abortion, Spontaneous / psychology*
  • Adoption / psychology
  • Europe
  • Fathers / psychology*
  • Female
  • Fetal Death
  • Grief*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Mental Health
  • Mothers / psychology*
  • Perinatology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Psychometrics*
  • United States