Soft tissue profile in Anatolian Turkish adults: Part II. Comparison of different soft tissue analyses in the evaluation of beauty

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2002 Jan;121(1):65-72. doi: 10.1067/mod.2002.119573.


This study examined the soft tissue analyses of Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone, Sushner, Holdaway, and Merrifield to evaluate orthodontists' perceptions of Anatolian Turkish adults' beauty. Forty-four subjects (21 females, mean age, 21.35 years; 23 males, mean age, 21.41 years) with Angle Class I occlusal relationship, and normal anteroposterior (ANB angle, 2 degrees +/- 2 degrees ) and vertical (SN-MP angle, 32 degrees +/- 5 degrees ) skeletal relationships were selected from the dental students at the University of Istanbul. The material consisted of lateral cephalometric radiographs and facial-profile slides of these subjects. Ten linear and 6 angular measurements were analyzed on each radiograph, and the facial profiles were judged as poor, fair, good, or excellent by 6 raters. After the scoring, 34 subjects (16 females and 18 males) were placed in the unattractive group, and 10 subjects (5 females and 5 males) were placed in the attractive group. The significance of the differences between the groups was studied by means of the Mann-Whitney U test. The results demonstrated that persons having a high mandibular plane angle, a small nose, protrusive lips, and a retrusive profile were selected as attractive. Among the 7 esthetic lines used to evaluate the soft tissue profile, only Ricketts' norms for upper and lower lips corresponded to the values we found for attractive profiles.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Beauty*
  • Cephalometry / standards*
  • Esthetics, Dental / statistics & numerical data*
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Face / anatomy & histology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Reference Standards
  • Reference Values
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Turkey