There have been several reports on the use of beta-amyloid (Abeta ) vaccination in different mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its effects on pathology and cognitive function. In this report, the histopathologic findings in the APP+PS1 doubly transgenic mouse were compared after three, five, or nine Abeta inoculations. The number of inoculations influenced the effects of vaccination on Congo red levels, microglia activation, and anti-Abeta antibody titers. After three inoculations, the antibody titer of transgenic mice was substantially lower than that found in nontransgenic animals. However, after nine inoculations, the levels were considerably higher in both genotypes and no longer distinguishable statistically. The number of inoculations influenced CD45 expression, an indicator of microglial activation. There was an initial upregulation, which was significant after five inoculations, but by nine inoculations, the extent of microglial activation was equivalent to that in mice given control vaccinations. Along with this increased CD45 expression, there was a correlative reduction in staining by Congo red, which stains compact plaques. When data from the mice from all groups were combined, there was a significant correlation between activation of microglia and Congo red levels, suggesting that microglia play a role in the clearance of compact plaque.