In-stent restenosis (ISR) is a novel pathobiologic process, histologically distinct from restenosis after balloon angioplasty and comprised largely of neointima formation. As percutaneous coronary intervention increasingly involves the use of stents, ISR is also becoming correspondingly more frequent. In this review, we examine the available studies of the histology and pathogenesis of ISR, with particular reference to porcine and other animal models. An overview of mechanical treatments is then provided, which includes PTCA, directional coronary atherectomy and high speed rotational atherectomy. Radiation-based therapies are discussed, including a summary of current problems associated with this modality of treatment. Finally, novel strategies for the prevention of ISR are addressed, including novel developments in stents and stent coatings, conventional drugs, nucleic acid-based drugs and gene transfer. Until recently, limited pharmacologic and mechanical treatment options have been available for both treatment and prevention of ISR. However, recent advances in gene modification and gene transfer therapies and, more particularly, in local stent-based drug delivery systems make it conceivable that the incidence of ISR will now be seriously challenged.