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Review
, 54 (9), 971-82

[Treatment of Ureteral Lithiasis With Shock Waves]

[Article in Spanish]
Affiliations
  • PMID: 11789374
Review

[Treatment of Ureteral Lithiasis With Shock Waves]

[Article in Spanish]
C González Enguita et al. Arch Esp Urol.

Abstract

Objective: To present our results with ESWL in situ in the treatment of ureteral lithiasis. Distal ureter calculi can be managed by ESWL or URS. For complex ureteral calculi associated with ureteral malformations, failed ESWL or complications other procedures are utilized (URS) and open surgery has its indications.

Methods: From October 1990 to December 2000 the Lithiasis-Lithotripsy Unit of the FJD has performed 2,500 ESWL in situ for ureteral calculi without endoscopic or percutaneous procedures (double-J or PN). The calculus was located in the lumbar ureter in 45%, sacro-iliac in 11% and renal pelvis in 44%. 67% were males and 33% females (mean age 48 and 42 years, respectively). Stone size was 5-20 mm in 88% of the cases; 1.5% had bilateral involvement, 1.7% multiple and 1.5% had a solitary kidney. 15% had renal colic when the procedure was performed. IVP was performed during ESWL for ureteral uric acid stones.

Results: The overall success rate was 95%; 97% for stones in the lumbar ureter and 89% for stones in the distal ureter. Repeat-ESWL rate was 1.10. Renal colic resolved during ESWL, although stone fragmentation was partial. Hematuria is common post-ESWL and irritative voiding symptoms on passage of stone fragments. Post-ESWL colic was observed in 20% of the cases but were managed without difficulty with medication. There were 3 cases of severe complications (0.12%), colon perforation, severe renal hematoma and peritonitis. Septic obstruction was found in 1.5% that required catheterization or nephrostomy. Radiologic and asymptomatic Steinstrasse was observed in 10% of the cases.

Conclusions: ESWL in situ is the treatment of choice in ureteral lithiasis and has been demonstrated by many groups. The size and degree of stone impaction have a negative influence on the results. Resistance to fragmentation, which is basically determined by stone chemical composition, influence the results. Monohydrate calcium oxalate stones have been found to be the most resistant. Previous insertion of a catheter (double-J or nephrostomy) does not enhance the results. It appears to be useful during an episode of renal colic. Distal ureteral calculi can be treated by ESWL and URS. If a lithotriptor is available, ESWL without endoscopic procedures is the first choice.

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