Heart rate responses and oxygen consumption during Tai Chi Chuan practice

Am J Chin Med. 2001;29(3-4):403-10. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X01000423.


Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a popular Chinese conditioning exercise, however, its exercise intensity remains controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the exercise intensity of Yang TCC by measuring heart rate (HR) responses and oxygen consumption (VO2) during practice. Fifteen men aged 39.9 +/- 9.5 yrs (range 26-56 yrs) participated in this study. Subjects had practiced classical Yang TCC for 5.8 +/- 2.4 years. HR responses and VO2 were measured during practice of TCC by using a K4 telemetry system. Blood lactate was measured before and immediately after TCC practice. Additionally, breath-by-breath measurement of cardiorespiratory function and sequential determination of blood lactate were performed during the incremental exercise of leg cycling. Measurements obtained during the TCC practice and exercise testing were compared to determine the exercise intensity of TCC. While performing TCC, the mean HR of subjects was 140 +/- 10 bpm, and the mean VO2 was 21.4 +/- 1.5 mL x kg(-1) min(-1). Compared with the data of the exercise test, the HR during practice was 58% of the heart rate range. Meanwhile, the VO2 during TCC practice was 55% of the VO2peak. Additionally, the level of blood lactate immediately after TCC practice was 3.8 mM, which reflected the level of lactate during TCC, approximated the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). The results demonstrate that TCC is an exercise with moderate intensity, and is aerobic in nature.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Heart Rate*
  • Humans
  • Lactates / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxygen Consumption*
  • Pulmonary Ventilation
  • Tai Ji*


  • Lactates