SKI 306X is a purified extract from a mixture of three oriental herbal medicines (Clematis mandshurica, Trichosanthes kirilowii and Prunella vulgaris) that have been widely used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as lymphadenitis and arthritis in far East Asia. A double-blind, controlled study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SKI 306X with placebo in 96 patients with classical osteoarthritis of the knee. Patients were randomized to four treatment groups: placebo, 200 mg, 400 mg and 600 mg of SKI 306X t.i.d.. Clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated for 4 weeks continuous treatment. SKI 306X demonstrated its clinical efficacy, as assessed by 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS), Lequesne index and patients' and investigators opinion of the therapeutic effect compared with placebo (p<0.01). No significant adverse events were observed in patients treated with SKI 306X. This study demonstrated that SKI 306X, a new herbal anti-arthritic agent provided clinical efficacy in patients with osteoarthritis.