Background: Heart-lung transplantation (HLT) for Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) provides superior early and intermediate survival when compared with other forms of transplantation. The early risk factors and long-term outcome of HLT for ES are less well defined.
Methods: We analyzed 263 patients who had undergone HLT at our institution during more than 15 years. Fifty-one consecutive patients with ES who underwent HLT, 33 (65%) of which had simple anatomy, were compared with 212 cases having HLT for other indications (non-ES).
Results: Female sex and previous thoracotomy were more prevalent in the ES group. Patients with ES had greater postoperative blood loss and returned more frequently to the operating room for control of bleeding. There were 8 (16%) early deaths in the ES group compared with 27 (13%) in non-ES (p = 0.65). One-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates for ES were 72.6%, 51.3%, and 27.6%, respectively, compared with non-ES of 74.1%, 48.1%, and 26.0%, respectively, and there was no difference in survival overall (p = 0.54). Among ES patients, previous thoracotomy was a risk factor for hospital death. A subgroup analysis based on simple versus complex type of ES did not show statistically significant differences in terms of postoperative course or early or late survival.
Conclusions: Heart-lung transplantation is a successful procedure for ES. Despite a greater frequency of risk factors and a more difficult operative course, early and late outcome with HLT is comparable to non-ES recipients.