The longitudinal distribution of various enzymes along the human small intestine was studied by analysis of biopsies from different parts of the small intestine, obtained from 13 patients during shunt-operation for severe obesity. Alkaline phosphatase and 3 glycolytic enzyme activities studied were rather uniformly distributed along the small intestine. Acid beta-galactosidase and hetero beta-galactosidase activities were highest in the proximal small intestine with a gradual decline throughout the intestine. The activity in the distal ileum was about half of the maximum activity. Maltase, isomaltase, sucrase, and trehalase activity had a broad maximum in the proximal and middle small intestine with a rather sharp decrease in the distal ileum. Lactase activity had a more pronounced maximum in the middle intestine with a pronounced decrease towards the proximal and distal ends. The disaccharidase activities in surgical biopsies taken 5 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz were about 10% higher than in peroral biopsies taken just at the ligament.