Fused deposition modeling of novel scaffold architectures for tissue engineering applications

Biomaterials. 2002 Feb;23(4):1169-85. doi: 10.1016/s0142-9612(01)00232-0.


Fused deposition modeling, a rapid prototyping technology, was used to produce novel scaffolds with honeycomb-like pattern, fully interconnected channel network, and controllable porosity and channel size. A bioresorbable polymer poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed as a filament modeling material to produce porous scaffolds, made of layers of directionally aligned microfilaments, using this computer-controlled extrusion and deposition process. The PCL scaffolds were produced with a range of channel size 160-700 microm, filament diameter 260-370 microm and porosity 48-77%, and regular geometrical honeycomb pores, depending on the processing parameters. The scaffolds of different porosity also exhibited a pattern of compressive stress-strain behavior characteristic of porous solids under such loading. The compressive stiffness ranged from 4 to 77 MPa, yield strength from 0.4 to 3.6 MPa and yield strain from 4% to 28%. Analysis of the measured data shows a high correlation between the scaffold porosity and the compressive properties based on a power-law relationship.

MeSH terms

  • Anisotropy
  • Biocompatible Materials*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
  • Freeze Fracturing
  • Materials Testing
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Models, Biological
  • Polyesters
  • Tissue Engineering*


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Polyesters
  • polycaprolactone