Cytogenetic maps, as the name implies, incorporate data from genetic maps with actual cytological features of chromosomes such as centromeres, knobs and, recently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals. Integration of genetic and cytological maps has been accomplished primarily in two ways. The first general strategy is to create a chromosome breakpoint, then determine its cytological position using microscopy, and its position on the genetic map using genetic techniques. A second strategy is by the direct hybridization of genetically mapped sequences onto chromosomes by FISH. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the state of this field in plants. We review the history and uses of cytogenetic maps, and discuss future directions based on what we have learned.