Expression of receptors for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is closely associated with the invasive and metastatic activity of gastric cancer

J Pathol. 2002 Feb;196(2):163-70. doi: 10.1002/path.1031.


The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a newly recognized factor regulating cancer cell invasion and metastasis. This study investigated the expression of RAGE in gastric carcinomas and its association with invasion and metastasis. Of eight gastric cancer cell lines examined, seven constitutively expressed RAGE messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), MKN45 being the exception. RAGE protein expression of MKN28 cells treated with RAGE antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide was nine times less than that of sense S-oligodeoxynucleotide-treated cells. Growth of cells under RAGE antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment was not different from that seen under sense S-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment in MKN28 (a cell line producing high levels of RAGE) and MKN45 (a non-RAGE-expressing cell line). RAGE antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment suppressed the invasive activity of RAGE-positive MKN28 cells, as estimated by in vitro invasion assay. The number of MKN28 cells invading the type IV collagen-coated membrane under RAGE antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment was significantly lower than under RAGE sense S-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment (p<0.0001). In contrast, antisense and sense S-oligodeoxynucleotide-treated RAGE-negative MKN45 cells showed no difference. A wound-healing assay showed that no RAGE antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide-treated MKN28 cells migrated into the scraped area, whereas sense S-oligodeoxynucleotide-treated cells showed many budding nests in the scraped area. Immunohistochemistry of gastric carcinoma tissue showed that 62 (65%) of the 96 cases examined were RAGE-positive and that poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas preferentially expressed RAGE protein (38/42, 90%) (p<0.0001). Strong RAGE immunoreactivity was also correlated with depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis (p<0.0001). RAGE-positive cancer cells tended to be distributed at the invasive front of primary tumours and were detected in all metastatic foci in lymph nodes. In contrast, a major RAGE ligand, amphoterin, was expressed in 82 (85%) of the 96 cases, regardless of histological type and disease progression. RAGE expression appears to be closely associated with invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / chemistry*
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology*
  • Adenocarcinoma / therapy
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis
  • HMGB1 Protein / analysis
  • Humans
  • Immunoblotting
  • Immunohistochemistry / methods
  • In Situ Hybridization / methods
  • Lymph Nodes / chemistry
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / therapeutic use
  • Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
  • Receptors, Immunologic / analysis*
  • Receptors, Immunologic / genetics
  • Stomach Neoplasms / chemistry*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / therapy
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects
  • Wound Healing


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • HMGB1 Protein
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense
  • Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
  • Receptors, Immunologic