A reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of problem gambling. A biopsychosocial perspective

Clin Psychol Rev. 2002 Feb;22(1):1-25. doi: 10.1016/s0272-7358(00)00087-8.


With most Western countries expanding the availability of gambling facilities in recent decades, considerable research interest has developed in those people who develop problematic levels of gambling. In the recent decade, a large body of research has been conducted into the determinants of gambling behavior in an attempt to understand this complex social and psychological problem. Research has varied in its nature from investigating underlying biological, psychological, or social factors that are hypothesized to contribute to gambling behavior. Evidence now exists that biological, psychological, and social factors are all relevant to the development of problematic levels of gambling. However, the theoretical explanation for gambling has lagged behind the advances in empirical work in recent years. The purpose of the current paper is to provide a review of the major research findings in the area of gambling and propose a biopsychosocial model that integrates diverse areas of research. The model described is empirically derived, and it is hoped it will stimulate future research work that investigates not only individual factors and their relationship to gambling, but also the interactions between different variables.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arousal*
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy*
  • Gambling / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Motivation
  • Social Facilitation*