The consumption of green, yellow, and other vegetables, fruits and fruit juices may be protective against breast cancer, and, alongside regular breast cancer screening, may contribute to ethnic and racial differences in breast cancer rates. The purpose of this study is to assess the dietary and sociodemographic predictors of surveillance among Harlem women, using a population-based household survey. One half of the Harlem women in this sample consumed no or one fruit or vegetable per day. Logistic regression analyses revealed that women who consumed more fruits and vegetables had received more recent mammography, and that women who were unemployed were less likely to receive recent breast cancer screening than were those who worked full- or part-time. The high response rate and the representativeness of the sample are study strengths. Owing to the small sample size for women between 40-65, the ages for which screening mammography and clinical breast exam are recommended, subgroup analyses were limited. Therefore, additional study of age-adjusted dietary patterns and screening among African American women is suggested.