Comparison of the predictive power of socio-economic variables, severity of injury and age on long-term outcome of traumatic brain injury: sample-specific variables versus factors as predictors

Brain Inj. 2002 Jan;16(1):9-27. doi: 10.1080/02699050110088227.


The primary objective of this study was to measure the predictive power of pre-injury socio-economic status (SES), severity of injury and age variables on the very long-term outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). By applying a within-subjects retroactive follow-up design and a factor analysis, the study also compared the relative power of sample-specific predictors to that of more commonly used variables and conceptually based factors. Seventy-six participants with severe TBI were evaluated at an average of 14 years post-injury with an extensive neuropsychological battery. The results show that pre-injury SES variables predict long-term cognitive, psychiatric, vocational, and social/familial functioning. Measures of severity of injury predict daily functioning, while age at injury fails to predict any of these variables. Sample-specific predictors were more powerful than more commonly used predictors. Implications regarding long-term clinically based and conceptually based prediction, and those regarding comparisons of predictors across samples are further discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living*
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Age of Onset
  • Brain Injuries* / complications
  • Brain Injuries* / diagnosis
  • Brain Injuries* / psychology
  • Family Characteristics
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Social Adjustment*
  • Socioeconomic Factors*
  • Trauma Severity Indices