Crystal structures of E. coli nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase and its complex with deamido-NAD

Structure. 2002 Jan;10(1):69-79. doi: 10.1016/s0969-2126(01)00693-1.


Nicotinamide/Nicotinate mononucleotide (NMN/NaMN) adenylyltransferase is an indispensable enzyme in both de novo biosynthesis and salvage of NAD+ and NADP+. In prokaryotes, it is absolutely required for cell survival, thus representing an attractive target for the development of new broad-spectrum antibacteria inhibitors. The crystal structures of E. coli NaMN adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) and its complex with deamido-NAD (NaAD) revealed that ligand binding causes large conformational changes in several loop regions around the active site. The enzyme specifically recognizes the deamidated pyridine nucleotide through interactions between nicotinate carboxylate with several protein main chain amides and a positive helix dipole. Comparison of E. coli NMNAT with those from archaeal organisms revealed extensive differences in the active site architecture, enzyme-ligand interaction mode, and bound dinucleotide conformations. The bacterial NaMN adenylyltransferase structures described here provide a foundation for structure-based design of specific inhibitors that may have therapeutic potential.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Archaeal Proteins / chemistry
  • Archaeal Proteins / metabolism
  • Binding Sites
  • Crystallography, X-Ray
  • Escherichia coli / enzymology*
  • Humans
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Molecular Structure
  • NAD / analogs & derivatives*
  • NAD / metabolism*
  • Nicotinamide-Nucleotide Adenylyltransferase*
  • Nucleotidyltransferases / chemistry*
  • Nucleotidyltransferases / metabolism
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary*
  • Sequence Alignment


  • Archaeal Proteins
  • NAD
  • nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide
  • Nucleotidyltransferases
  • Nicotinamide-Nucleotide Adenylyltransferase
  • nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase

Associated data

  • PDB/1K4K
  • PDB/1K4M