To investigate the relationships between serum concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules and hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, or other conventional risk factors in type 2 diabetes, we measured soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin (sE-selectin), insulin sensitivity, and conventional risk factors in 150 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients without apparent diabetic macroangiopathy. High serum concentrations of sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin were observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules were not significantly influenced by sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or microangiopathy. Spearman correlation showed that sVCAM-1 concentrations correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting C-peptide, and insulin sensitivity [K index of the insulin tolerance test (K(ITT))] (rho=0.19,0.23, and -0.23, respectively). Soluble E-selectin concentrations correlated significantly with body mass index (BMI), FPG, fasting C-peptide, insulin sensitivity, and triglyceride (rho=0.33,0.42,0.26,-0.48, and 0.29, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed that FPG, fasting C-peptide, and total cholesterol were independent factors that correlated with sVCAM-1 levels. BMI, FPG, and insulin sensitivity were independent factors that correlated with sE-selectin levels. Serum concentrations of sE-selectin significantly increased associated with clustering of conventional risk factors those obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and current smoking (P<0.01). Thus, sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin levels are related to both hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Soluble E-selectin levels may be related to obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance and may reflect the presence of a multiple risk factor clustering syndrome.