Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) convert arginine residues in proteins into citrulline residues Ca(2+)-dependently. PAD V was recently found in granulocyte-differentiated HL-60 cells. To find a target of PAD V, we incubated HL-60 granulocytes with the calcium ionophore A23187 and studied deiminated proteins by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting using a monospecific antibody to modified citrulline residues. Immunocytochemical signals were found in the nucleus upon incubation with A23187. Immunoblotting indicated that 40-, 18-, 17-, and 14-kDa proteins were preferentially deiminated. The 40-kDa protein, which was focused to pI 5.0 on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, was identified as nucleophosmin/B23 by mass spectrometry. The 18-, 17-, and 14-kDa proteins extracted with 0.4 N H(2)SO(4) comigrated with histones H3, H2A, and H4, respectively, on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis specialized for histones. The citrulline content of histones amounted to about 10% of the histone molecules. We discuss the implications of deimination of these proteins for their nuclear functions.