Motor control strategies revealed in the structure of motor variability

Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2002 Jan;30(1):26-31. doi: 10.1097/00003677-200201000-00006.


We describe an uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, which suggests a particular solution for the notorious problem of motor redundancy. A body of recent experiments supports the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis and shows its ability to discover biological strategies of the coordination of apparently redundant motor systems. The hypothesis and associated computational apparatus have great potential for application in the areas of motor rehabilitation and motor skill acquisiton.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Central Nervous System / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological*
  • Motor Skills / physiology*
  • Movement / physiology*