Stanford presenteeism scale: health status and employee productivity

J Occup Environ Med. 2002 Jan;44(1):14-20. doi: 10.1097/00043764-200201000-00004.


Workforce productivity has become a critical factor in the strength and sustainability of a company's overall business performance. Absenteeism affects productivity; however, even when employees are physically present at their jobs, they may experience decreased productivity and below-normal work quality--a concept known as decreased presenteeism. This article describes the creation and testing of a presenteeism scale evaluating the impact of health problems on individual performance and productivity. A total of 175 county health employees completed the 34-item Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-34). Using these results, we identified six key items to describe presenteeism, resulting in the SPS-6. The SPS-6 has excellent psychometric characteristics, supporting the feasibility of its use in measuring health and productivity. Further validation of the SPS-6 on actual presenteeism (work loss data) or health status (health risk assessment or utilization data) is needed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Absenteeism*
  • Adult
  • California
  • Employee Performance Appraisal / methods*
  • Female
  • Health Status Indicators*
  • Humans
  • Job Satisfaction
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Stress, Psychological / psychology