Recombinant replication-defective adenovirus expressing the CS gene from Plasmodium berghei (Ad-PbCS) was found to induce a strong CD8(+) T cell response after intra-dermal or -muscular immunisation. Boosting of an adenovirus-primed immune response with the replication-impaired poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) led to enhanced immunogenicity and substantial protective efficacy. The recombinant adenoviral vaccine was capable of boosting to protective levels a CD8(+) T cell response primed by either a plasmid DNA vaccine, a recombinant Ty virus-like particle vaccine or recombinant MVA each expressing the same epitope or antigen. Complete protective efficacy after intradermal immunisation was observed with the adenovirus prime-MVA boost regime. This study identifies recombinant replication-defective adenovirus as an alternative to recombinant replication-defective poxviruses as boosting agents for the induction of strong protective CD8(+) T cell responses.