Objective: To analyze the association between pre- and perioperative factors and pouch-related septic complications (PRSC) in ulcerative colitis (UC) and in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA).
Summary background data: For patients with UC and FAP, IPAA is the surgical therapy of choice, but in some patients the outcome is compromised by PRSC.
Methods: A total of 706 consecutive patients (494 UC, 212 FAP) were assessed in a study aimed at identifying subgroups of patients who were at high risk for PRSC. The rate of PRSC was analyzed as a time-dependent function (Kaplan-Meier estimation). Patients with UC and FAP were stratified separately according to associated factors (age, sex, surgeon's experience, temporary ileostomy, colectomy before IPAA, anastomotic tension, and several factors specific for UC).
Results: In all, 131 (19.2%) patients had PRSC (23.4% UC, 9.4% FAP). In patients with UC, the estimated 1-year PRSC rate was 15.6% and the estimated 3-year PRSC rate was 24.2%. In patients with FAP, the estimated 1-year and 3-year PRSC rates were 9.2%. The difference between the estimated rates of PRSC was significant (P <.001). In the univariate analysis, patients with UC younger than 50 years, with severe proctitis, with preoperative hemoglobin levels less than 10 g/L, or receiving corticoid medication had a significantly higher risk for PRSC (P =.039, P =.037, P =.047, P =.003, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that patients with UC receiving a systemic prednisolone-equivalent corticoid medication of more than 40 mg/day had a significantly greater risk of developing pouch-related complications than patients with UC receiving 1 to 40 mg/day and patients with UC who were not receiving corticoid medication (RR: 3.78, 2.25, 1, respectively, P <.001). Patients with FAP proved to have a significantly higher risk for PRSC in the univariate and multivariate analyses if anastomotic tension had occurred (RR 3.60, P =.0086).
Conclusions: Pouch-related septic complications occur as late complications and should therefore be considered in regular, specific long-term follow-up examinations. The authors identified significant risk factors for PRSC specific to patients with UC and FAP; these must be considered for each individual surgical strategy.