Salvia is an important genus widely cultivated and used in flavouring and folk medicines. The genus has attracted great interest so much so that it has been the subject of numerous chemical studies. It is a rich source of polyphenols, with an excess of 160 polyphenols having been identified, some of which are unique to the genus. A large number of these polyphenolic compounds are apparently constructed from the caffeic acid building block via a variety of condensation reactions. The nature of these polyphenols which have been reported is compiled in this report together with some bioactivity data in an effort to show the rapid development in the phytochemistry and the therapeutic applications of the Salvia species.