Structural features of immunologically active polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum

Phytochemistry. 2002 Jan;59(2):175-81. doi: 10.1016/s0031-9422(01)00450-2.


Three polysaccharides, two heteroglycans (PL-1 and PL-4) and one glucan (PL-3), were solubilized from the fruit bodies of Ganoderma lucidum and isolated by anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Their structural features were elucidated by glycosyl residue and glycosyl linkage composition analyses, partial acid hydrolysis, acetolysis, periodate oxidation, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and ESI-MS experiments. The data obtained indicated that PL-1 had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues and 1,6-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl residues with branches at O-6 of glucose residues and O-2 of galactose residues, composed of terminal glucose, 1,6-linked glucosyl residues and terminal rhamnose. PL-3 was a highly branched glucan composed of 1,3-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl residues substituted at O-6 with 1,6-linked glucosyl residues. PL-4 was comprised of 1,3-, 1,4-, 1,6-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl residues and 1,6-linked beta-D-mannopyranosyl residues. These polysaccharides enhanced the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes in vitro to varying contents and PL-1 exhibited an immune-stimulating activity in mice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / chemistry
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / isolation & purification*
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Antibodies / blood
  • Antibodies / drug effects
  • B-Lymphocytes / drug effects*
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Cell Division / drug effects
  • Complement C3c / drug effects
  • Female
  • Fungi / chemistry
  • Glucans / chemistry
  • Glucans / pharmacology
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / drug effects
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Polysaccharides / chemistry
  • Polysaccharides / isolation & purification
  • Polysaccharides / pharmacology
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antibodies
  • Glucans
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • PL-1 polysaccharide
  • PL-3 glucan
  • PL-4 polysaccharide
  • Polysaccharides
  • Complement C3c