The aim of the present study was to examine the periodontal conditions in an age cohort of 70-year-old women and compare an osteoporosis group with a control group with normal bone mineral density. 210 women 70 years old and randomly sampled from the population register of the community of Linköping were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. 19 women were diagnosed with osteoporosis (BMD below 0.640 g/cm2 in total hip). 15 of them accepted to participate in the study. As a control group 21 women with normal bone mineral density (BMD exceeding 0.881 g/cm2) were randomly selected from the initial population. The clinical examination included registration of the number of remaining teeth, dental plaque and periodontal conditions. The radiographic examination included a dental panorama and vertical bite-wing radiographs. The subjects also answered a questionnaire about their general health, age at menopause, concurrent medication, smoking and oral hygiene habits. The results from this study showed no statistically significant differences in gingival bleeding, probing pocket depths, gingival recession and marginal bone level between the women with osteoporosis and the women with normal bone mineral density. In conclusion, the present randomly selected and controlled study of osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women, showed no statistically significant differences in periodontal conditions or marginal bone level. As periodontitis as well as osteoporosis are associated with age, our study of a well-defined age cohort is of interest, but the results should be interpreted with caution since the compared groups are small.