Background/aims: Although the most frequent cause of death after curative resection of advanced gastric cancer is peritoneal recurrence, there was no effective therapy for the prevention of peritoneal recurrence. This randomized trial sought to determine whether intraoperative chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion could eliminate microscopic residual disease and thereby improve survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Methodology: One-hundred and thirty-nine patients with T2-4 gastric cancer underwent curative gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy. These patients were randomly allocated into the following three groups. Patients in the CHPP group received surgery + chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion, and those in the CNPP group underwent surgery + chemonormothermic peritoneal perfusion. The third group was surgery alone group. In the CHPP and CNPP groups, peritoneal cavity was perfused with 6-8 liters of heated saline at, respectively, 42-43 degrees C and 37 degrees C with 30 mg of mitomycin C and 300 mg of cisplatin by a extracorporeal circulation machine.
Results: Major operative complication occurred in 19% (9/48), 14% (6/44) and 19% (9/47) of the CHPP, CNPP and surgery alone group, respectively. Complication which uniquely developed after chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion was bowel perforation. Mortality rates of each group were 4% (2/48), 0% (0/44) and 4% (2/47) in the CHPP, CNPP and surgery alone group, respectively. Overall 5-year survival rates of CHPP, CNPP and surgery alone groups were 61%, 43% and 42%, respectively. In a subset analysis, patients with gastric cancer having serosal invasion or lymph node metastasis have shown a statistically significant improvement in survival when treated with chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion. However, chemonormothermic peritoneal perfusion had no survival benefit. By analyzing with Cox proportional hazard model, chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion emerged as an independent prognostic factor for good survival. Surgery alone had three-fold higher risk of death than chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion.
Conclusions: Chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion had an efficiency for the prophylaxis of recurrence after curative resection of advanced gastric cancer, and is indicated for patients with tumor infiltrating beyond serosal layer and node positive tumor.