The GSF family of voxel phantoms

Phys Med Biol. 2002 Jan 7;47(1):89-106. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/47/1/307.


Voxel phantoms are human models based on computed tomographic or magnetic resonance images obtained from high-resolution scans of a single individual. They consist of a huge number of volume elements (voxels) and are at the moment the most precise representation of the human anatomy. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the GSF voxel phantoms, with emphasis on the new ones and highlight their characteristics and limitations. The GSF voxel family includes at the moment two paediatric and five adult phantoms of both sexes, different ages and stature and several others are under construction. Two phantoms made of physical calibration phantoms are also available to be used for validation purposes. The GSF voxel phantoms tend to cover persons of individual anatomy and were developed to be used for numerical dosimetry of radiation transport but other applications are also possible. Examples of applications in patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology and in nuclear medicine as well as for whole-body irradiations from idealized external exposures are given and discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Male
  • Models, Anatomic
  • Phantoms, Imaging*
  • Radiology / methods*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed